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Previous steps in the Iowa Model create a foundation for collective action. This step of the evidence-based practice (EBP) process introduces a thoughtful approach to adapt, evaluate, and determine how the EBP change should be developed for the local setting (Laures & Fowler, 2020). The practice change or topic evolves to become evidence-based recommendations based on the synthesis of evidence (see Chapter 5). Further specify and design the EBP change into a localized EBP protocol and then pilot by conducting a small-scale test of the change (see Table 7.1). Key points within this step are called out (bulleted in the Iowa Model) but are nonlinear and interdependent, rather than strictly sequential as they are listed (Iowa Model Collaborative, 2017).

TABLE 7.1Evolution of the Practice Change Through Steps of the Iowa Model

Think of design as both the process and the outcome of the process (Melles, 2021). Consider human centered design (HCD) or user centered design (UCD), terms often used interchangeably to describe a collaborative multimethod approach that understands and responds to human needs (Göttgens & Oertelt-Prigione, 2021). Increase extent of involvement of patients and clinicians (end users) in the design process (Göttgens & Oertelt-Prigione, 2021):

  • Users: Describe user needs and context for design

  • Testers: Provide feedback on initial design prototypes

  • Informants: Provide initial and formative feedback on application for design

  • Design partners: Provide feedback, idea generation, and decision-making in all phases of design

UCD is commonly used to focus on functional solutions, while HCD involves end users as fully integrated design partners (Göttgens & Oertelt-Prigione, 2021). HCD aims to uncover unmet health needs, increase patient trust, design better interventions, and improve hospital space, workflow, processes, and policies (Norman et al., 2021). Apply HCD to support development of innovative, effective, and person-centered solutions for end users in healthcare (Göttgens & Oertelt-Prigione, 2021). Incorporate three characteristics of HCD when designing ...

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