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“Ignorance of all things is an evil neither terrible nor excessive, nor yet the greatest of all; but great cleverness and much learning, if they be accompanied by a bad training, are a much greater misfortune.”

-Plato

OBJECTIVES

  • Describe the purpose of health information technology training.

  • Arrange training tasks within a training development framework.

  • Explain the purpose of learning theory.

  • List the five types of learning evaluation.

INTRODUCTION

The introduction of healthcare information technology (IT) into the already complex healthcare environment has triggered the need for a new approach to training. In this chapter, you will learn how to use well-established training frameworks and models to implement effective training in the rapidly changing world of healthcare. Implementation of healthcare IT has been associated with the introduction of new leadership structures, disciplines, and patient care practices (Shea et al., 2014), and may be correlated to a decrease in patient safety during and after the initial implementation period (Meeks, Takian, Sittig, Singh, & Barber, 2014). Managing change through effective training becomes extremely important in light of the potential for unplanned consequences and organizational turbulence.

ASSESSING TRAINING

The Nursing Informatics Scope and Standards (American Nurses Association, 2008, p. 25) stated that “[E]ducation is a critical component of many NI functions and may directly affect the success or failure of any new or modified IT solution.” Despite the inclusion of education as a functional area for nursing informatics, little is found in healthcare-related literature about the process of developing and delivering effective training for users of healthcare IT (Alpay & Russell, 2002; Bredfelt, Awad, Joseph, & Mark, 2013; Page, 2011). Most concerning is that the results of poor training can produce decreased efficiency, staff turnover, patient care errors, and poor quality documentation followed by decreased billing revenue. Training is the final opportunity to positively influence performance and attitude toward change.

Business, education, and the military spend billions of dollars annually on training (Morrison, Ross, Kalman, & Kemp, 2011), based on effective training models developed over decades and based on the science of human performance improvement (HPI). The good news is that these models can be used to successfully address the challenges of healthcare IT training in our current fast-moving and unique healthcare environments. Grounded in psychology, organizational behavior, performance improvement, quality, and other disciplines (Pershing, 2006), training is different from education (Morrison et al., 2011, p. 4):

“Specific job training has precise, immediate requirements with identifiable and often measurable outcomes. …Formal education, on the other hand, often has broad purposes and more generalized objectives. Application of the knowledge and skills taught may not become important until sometime in the future.”

Implementing an effective and accountable training model in healthcare requires a different approach along with new models and frameworks ...

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