Academic detailing: Structured presentations with specific elements (e.g., evidence summary, actionable goals, unattractive alternatives) designed to influence provider adoption of a recommended practice.
Action plan: Document outlining steps for project management with objectives, specific activities to accomplish the objectives, an estimated timeline, assignment of responsibility, and tracking progress.
Adaptation/reinvention: Modification of an evidence-based intervention by a user when designing the EBP protocol to suit the needs of the setting or to improve the fit to local conditions.
Adoption: Decision about and use of a clinical practice recommendation.
AGREE II (Appraisal of Guidelines, for Research, & Evaluation II): Established instrument that provides a framework for assessing the quality and reporting of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs).
Anecdotal evidence: Informal evidence supported by local experts, local data, theory, or scientific principles.
Anticipated impact: The expected benefit of the new EBP over the usual care or traditional practice.
Audit: A routine method for collecting evaluative data from key indicators that provide a summary of clinical performance or provision of evidence-based healthcare over a specific time period; serves as a proxy for identifying actual practice patterns.
Baseline data collection: Data collected before implementation of the practice change, focused on key indicators related to the proposed practice change, to guide implementation and post-implementation evaluation.
Benchmarking: Comparing outcome measures with top performers to evaluate performance.
Body of evidence: The relevant research, synthesis reports, patient preferences, case reports, local data, and/or expert opinion that answers clinical questions and guides development of practice recommendations.
Case report: Retrospective account of an individual or select individuals with unusual or pertinent diseases, interventions, or therapies.
Case study: The collection and presentation of detailed information about a particular individual or small group, including accounts for how EBP was helpful or would have been helpful for patient care.
Case-control study: Retrospective design where subjects with a certain outcome or disease (cases) are grouped and then exposures/risks compared to matched controls.
Change agent: Influential person who, based on his or her role, expertise, or leadership style, can impact implementation.
Change champion: Change agent who works in the clinical area, uses social influence, commits to promoting a specific practice change, develops expertise on key aspects of the evidence, guides designing the practice change based on his/her understanding of the evidence and the local context, assists with creating resources for implementation, and trains peers.
Clinical decision support: Point-of-care reminders to improve recall, influence decision-making, and improve use of clinical practice recommendations.
Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs): Document including recommendations for or against related assessments, procedures, tests, or interventions, based on a systematic review of evidence and analysis of benefits versus harms intending to change clinician practices and to optimize patient care.